Wall ties may connect:
- two leaves of masonry to each other, across a cavity (cavity ties), or
- an outer veneer of masonry to an inner frame or other structure (veneer ties).
They are tested to AS/NZS 2699 by constructing test specimens (such as a pair of bricks joined with mortar, connected to another such pair by a wall tie embedded in the mortar at each end).
The specimens are first deformed (to simulate some movement of one end of the tie relative to the other), then subjected to compressive and tensile loads to determine whether the tie
is light, medium or heavy duty.
Another section of the same Standard gives a method for determining whether water passes from the outside end of the tie to the inside end (and hence potentially into the plaster or other internal
Wall ties are typically made from wire or steel sheet, but other materials may be used, such as plastic.
Other connecting items used in masonry, such as connectors and bed-joint mesh, may be tested using similar methods.